January 2023

Causes of the Second Chimurenga and the UDI

By |2022-09-15T12:35:26+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ian Smith signing the UDI.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980:  The Armed Struggle (1966-1979)

  • Nationalists saw that the use of violence and war could not be avoided
  • Many other factors also caused the outbreak of the Chimurenga ranging from reformist pressure politics to […]

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The Beginning of the Second Chimurenga War (1965-1971)

By |2022-09-15T12:35:27+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ian Smith and Harold Wilson aboard the HMS Tiger

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980:  The Beginning of the War (1965-1971)

  • The war started in the late 1960s but was weak because Nationalist leaders such as Nkomo and Mugabe had been arrested in 1964 […]

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Chimurenga II/ Umvukela II: Introduction

By |2022-09-15T12:35:37+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: Chimurenga II/ Umvukela II

 Introduction

  • This topic seeks to evaluate early protest movements in Southern Rhodesia
  • It enumerates the list of grievances that Africans had against colonial rule
  • The social and economic lives of […]

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Mass Mobilization and Politicization 1972-74

By |2022-09-15T12:35:16+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Josiah “Magama” Tongogara

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: Mass Mobilization and Politicization 1972-74

  • The nationalists saw that forceful recruiting was not working so there was need to change their approach to political education
  • They began mobilizing and educating the masses on the need […]

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African Grievances against Colonial Rule: Economic Grievances

By |2022-09-15T12:35:37+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Land was one of the core grievances.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe:African Grievances against Colonial Rule: Economic Grievances

  • The racial division of the land was the main cause of the liberation struggle
  • All Rhodesian Prime Ministers were farmers
  • The institution of the Land Apportionment […]

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Settler’s (Rhodesian Army’s) warfare tactics

By |2022-09-15T12:35:15+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Abel Muzorewa in 2005

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: Settler’s warfare tactics

  • They built a powerful army and air force of both whites and blacks. The blacks in white armies were sellouts
  • They also used the state of emergency declaration and used various […]

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African Grievances against Colonial Rule:Social Grievances

By |2022-09-15T12:35:36+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Goromonzi High School. Image credit wordpress.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe: Social Grievances

  • It was the second major grievance that the Africans held towards settlers
  • Education was compulsory for whites but this was not extended to blacks
  • African education was left in the hands […]

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Assassination of Hebert Chitepo 18 March 1975

By |2022-09-15T12:35:14+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Hebert Chitepo Right

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: Assassination of Hebert Chitepo 18 March 1975

  • The assassination of Chitepo saw crisis rocking ZANU as there were leadership struggles
  • Chitepo was a lawyer by profession and very intelligent and was a dedicated nationalist who […]

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African Grievances against Colonial Rule: Political Grievances

By |2022-09-15T12:35:36+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ian Smith(left) the Prime Minister of Rhodesia

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe: Political Grievances

  • Africans had also lost their political voice
  • Many Africans were denied the right to vote by the qualifications for voting introduced
  • Franchise legislation even though it was changed 5 times […]

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Foreign Aid in the Second Chimurenga

By |2022-09-15T12:35:14+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Samora Machel provided critical help to Zimbabwe during the Second Chimurenga

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: Foreign Aid in the Second Chimurenga

  • The Mozambique government continued giving its support to the ZANLA forces and by October 1975 recruits crossing into Zimbabwe were about […]

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