February 2017

Modern Developments in Transport: Sea transport

By |2022-09-15T12:35:52+02:00February 23rd, 2017|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

A container ship. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Transport:Modern Developments in Transport: Sea transport

  • Sea transport development has involved the modernization of old ports through deepening of harbours, building wharfs and quays and installing new port handling facilities to increase capacity and efficiency.
  • For example in Mozambique, the […]

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Advantages of iron and steel industries

By |2022-09-15T12:36:15+02:00February 15th, 2017|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Steel Plant image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Iron and Steel Industry:Advantages of iron and steel industries

  • Many advantages accrue to a country as a result of establishing its own iron and steel works.

Industrial growth

  • Iron and steel works are themselves industries, so establishing more of these means industrial […]

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Irrigation Farming

By |2022-09-15T12:36:33+02:00February 8th, 2017|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Small scale irrigation. Image credit wfp.org

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Agriculture:Farming types in Africa:Irrigation Farming

  • This is the artificial application of water on land in order to grow crops when prevailing climatic and weather conditions cannot sustain such crop growth.
  • This expensive farming system is carried out in order to:
    1. Increase […]

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July 2015

River capture

By |2022-09-15T12:43:39+02:00July 1st, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

River capture.

River capture. ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: River capture
  • This is a process where one River captures the headwaters on a nearby stream.
  • This can occur due to several reasons viz:
  • Tectonic earth movements, where the slope of the land changes, and the stream is tipped out of its former course.
  • Natural damming, […]

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Surface Water flow and the origin of rivers

By |2022-09-15T12:43:40+02:00July 1st, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

Natural Springs contribute their water to rivers and often form the source of rivers. Image credit paintballfun.com

Natural Springs contribute their water to rivers and often form the source of rivers. Image credit paintballfun.com ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Surface Water Flow and the Origin of rivers

Surface water flow and […]


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Drainage Basin

By |2022-09-15T12:43:41+02:00July 1st, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

The drainage basin. Image credit BBC.

The drainage basin. Image credit BBC. ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Drainage Basin
  • The term drainage basin refers to an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries (river system).
  • It includes water found in the water table and surface run-off.
  • The drainage basin is also known […]

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June 2015

River rejuvenation

By |2022-09-15T12:43:56+02:00June 23rd, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

Paired terraces resulting from rejuvination. Image credit Geographyas.info

Paired terraces resulting from rejuvination. Image credit Geographyas.info ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: River Rejuvination
  • Rejuvenation-occurs when there is a negative change in a river’s base level (i.e. when the river’s base level falls) which increases its potential energy and thus enables it […]

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River Regime

By |2022-09-15T12:43:56+02:00June 23rd, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

 

The river Nile. Image credit historymuseum.ca

The river Nile. Image credit historymuseum.ca ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: River Regime
  • A river regime is the term used to describe the annual variations in a specified river’s discharge.
  • A river’s discharge is the volume of water flowing through a river channel.
  • This is the total […]

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Deltas

By |2022-09-15T12:43:59+02:00June 21st, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

A satellite photo of the Nile Delta. Image credit Flckr.com

A satellite photo of the Nile Delta. Image credit Flckr.com ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Deltas
  • A delta is a gently sloping depositional feature that is found at a river’s mouth where it empties into a sea or ocean that extends […]

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Waterfalls and Rapids

By |2022-09-15T12:43:59+02:00June 21st, 2015|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

The Victoria Falls formed by water falling into a faultline. Image credit trekearth.com

The Victoria Falls formed by water falling into a faultline. Image credit trekearth.com ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Waterfalls and Rapids

Waterfalls and Rapids

  • Waterfalls commonly occur in the upper course section of the river although they can occur […]

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