January 2023

Small scale energy sources and plants:Bio-fuel

By |2022-09-15T12:34:33+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Jatropha plant. Image credit jatropha.org.za

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:Small scale energy sources and plants:Bio-fuel

  • is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes,
  • such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion,
  • rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil […]

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Small scale energy sources: Wood stove

By |2022-09-15T12:34:33+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Wood stove. Image credit quadrafire.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:Small scale energy sources and plants:Wood stove

  • A wood stove is a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as wood pellets.
  • Wood stove are usually made using a combination of metal(iron) and bricks
  • […]


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River Deposition

By |2022-09-15T12:44:06+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes, River Processes|

River deposition (left bank). Image credit Panoramio.

River deposition (left bank). Image credit Panoramio. ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: River deposition
  • Deposition occurs when a river no longer as sufficient energy to transport its load.
  • When its velocity begins to fall and has less energy, a river’s competence (maximum size of material […]

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Energy resources in Zimbabwe

By |2022-09-15T12:34:32+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Wood is a popular fuel source in Zimbabwe. Image credit Flickr.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:Energy resources in Zimbabwe

  • The major sources of Zimbabwe’s electrical energy are coal from Hwange and water at Kariba HEP station.
  • Wood makes small but significant contributions.
  • All the oil products used in […]

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Energy: Introduction

By |2022-09-15T12:34:40+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Power-line to transmit electrical energy

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources:Energy

  • Energy is power.
  • It may exist in the form of potential or kinetic energy or in the form of fossil fuels and hydrocarbons.
  • It is also found in the form of light or heat energy.
  • Its sources cover all […]

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The energy crisis in Zimbabwe

By |2022-09-15T12:34:32+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Polling Stations in the Dark. Image credit mg.co.za

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:The energy crisis in Zimbabwe 

The energy crisis in Zimbabwe is demonstrated through the following:

  • Frequent shortages of petroleum and its products resulting in long queues for the scarce commodity at service stations.
  • Fluctuating prices in the […]

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Classification of energy sources

By |2022-09-15T12:34:40+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Natural Gas flame. Image credit money.cnn.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources:Energy: Classification of energy sources

  • One way of classification is by grouping energy sources into traditional and modern sources.
  • Some sources and types belong to both groups.
  • For example canoeing down a river uses the force of the moving […]

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Possible measures to solve the energy crisis in Zimbabwe

By |2022-09-15T12:34:31+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Cahora Bassa Dama Mozambique.Image credit zambezitraveller.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:The energy crisis in Zimbabwe:Measures

Measures have been put in place to try to resolve the energy crisis in Zimbabwe. These include:

  • Imports of electricity from countries overproducing it for example from South Africa through the Insukamini interconnector near […]

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Hydro-electric power

By |2022-09-15T12:34:40+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

A hydro-electric power station. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:Hydro-electric power

  • At a hydro-electric power plant, water leaves the lake or reservoir at high pressure (speed) and goes through pen stocks (concrete or steel pipes) to the turbines in a power house underground.
  • The force of […]

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Africa’s Energy Resources

By |2022-09-15T12:34:31+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Old Inga Dam DRC. Image credit internationalrivers.org

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:Energy resources of Africa

  • Electricity is generated from two major processes, thermal and hydro.
  • The thermal component includes petroleum on top of coal for a number of countries such as Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria and Libya.
  • For other […]

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