January 2023

The Benefits of the Portuguese Activities in the Mutapa State (Zambezi Valley)

By |2022-09-15T12:41:22+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The Portuguese introduced maize to Zimbabwe. It has since become the staple. Image credit mediawiki

The Portuguese introduced maize to Zimbabwe. It has since become the staple. Image credit mediawiki ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Benefits of the Portuguese Activities in the Mutapa State

The activities of the Portuguese in the […]


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Did the people of the Mutapa state benefit from the expansion of the state?

By |2022-09-15T12:41:00+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

An early Portuguese map showing the Mutapa state

An early Portuguese map showing the Mutapa state. Image credit MediaWiki ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Mutapa State:Did the people of the Mutapa state benefit from the expansion of the state?
  • The expansion of the Mutapa state brought with it some benefits including:
  • Trade items […]

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A list of the Rulers of Mutapa state

By |2022-09-15T12:41:34+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A stamp showing a Portoguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidely European features. Image credit stampdata.com

A stamp showing a Portoguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidedly European features. Image credit stampdata.com ZIMSEC History O Level Notes: Mutapa State: A List of the rulers of […]

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Religious Organization of the Mutapa State

By |2022-09-15T12:37:18+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Some people still practice the African Religion of the Mutapa state.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa Kingdom:Religious Organization of the Mutapa State

  • The Munhumutapa was the supreme leader and the religious leader of the Mutapa people.
  • He had the ultimate religious powers.
  • Evidence from oral tradition argues that the Munhumutapa […]

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The Portuguese who visited the Mutapa Kingdom/State

By |2022-09-15T12:41:34+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A drawing depicting the death of Da Silveira

A drawing depicting the death of Da Silveira image credit Jesuit.org.sg ZIMSEC History O Level Notes: The Mutapa State: The Portuguese Explorers who visited the Mutapa Kingdom/State
  • These are the early European/Portuguese explorers that came to the Mutapa Kingdom:
  1. Father Gonçalo Da Silveira
  2. António Fernandes
  3. Francisco […]

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A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

By |2022-09-15T12:37:18+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Nyakasikana the last known medium of Nehanda.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa Kingdom: A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

  • Mhondoros were the national spirit mediums/ancestral spirits in the Mutapa state
  • They were usually made up of royal ancestral spirits
  • The word svikiro comes from a Shona verb (infinitive) kusvika which […]

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Political Organisation of the Mutapa State

By |2022-09-15T12:41:31+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A stamp showing a Portoguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidely European features. Image credit stampdata.com

A stamp showing a Portoguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidely European features. Image credit stampdata.com ZIMSEC History O Level Notes: The Mutapa State: The Political Organisation of the Mutapa […]

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Trade in the Mutapa State

By |2022-09-15T12:37:07+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Gold is one of the items traded in Mutapa kingdom. Image credit idolator.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa State (Kingdom): Trade in the Mutapa State

  • Three types of trade were done in the Mutapa state
  • That is, internal trade with the locals,
  • inter-regional trade with other states like the Ndebele […]

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The economic organisation of the Mutapa State

By |2022-09-15T12:41:31+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Basket weaving is a craft that goes back to the Mutapa state and possibly beyond. Image credit bbcnews.com

Basket weaving is a craft that goes back to the Mutapa state and possibly beyond. Image credit bbcnews.com ZIMSEC History O Level Notes: The Mutapa State: Economic Organisation of the Mutapa State
  • The […]

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Importance and effects of foreign trade in the Mutapa state

By |2022-09-15T12:37:07+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ivory Trade was part of the Foreign Trade in Mutapa State. Image credit watchdog.co.ug

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa State (Kingdom): Importance and effects of foreign trade in the Mutapa state

  • Trade played an important role in the Mutapa State

Importance of Trade in the Mutapa Kingdom

  • The cloths and beads […]

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