January 2023

A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

By |2022-09-15T12:37:18+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Nyakasikana the last known medium of Nehanda.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa Kingdom: A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

  • Mhondoros were the national spirit mediums/ancestral spirits in the Mutapa state
  • They were usually made up of royal ancestral spirits
  • The word svikiro comes from a Shona verb (infinitive) kusvika which […]
Comments Off on A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

Causes of Mfecane/Difaqane

By |2022-09-15T12:37:05+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Zulu soldiers at a village kraal. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Crisis in Nguniland: The Mfecane

  • Rapid population growth resulted on competition for land which was needed for agricultural, grazing and residential purposes
  • This led to over-cultivation of soils and later soil erosion
  • Bigger and powerful states like the […]
Comments Off on Causes of Mfecane/Difaqane

The Social Organization of the Ndebele State

By |2022-09-15T12:36:51+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ndebele Caste system

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Ndebele State:The Social Organization of the Ndebele State

  • The Ndebele state was organized in a caste system. A caste system is a system of class determined by birth meaning if you are born in a poor family you will also be poor
  • The […]
Comments Off on The Social Organization of the Ndebele State

Conditions in Africa that led to colonisation

By |2022-09-15T12:36:38+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A map of Africa before partition

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes:Scramble and Partition of Africa:Conditions in Africa that led to colonisation

  • Explorers and adventurers had produced reports of economic potential in Africa invited many European countries to rush to acquire colonies
  • Traders operating in Africa called upon their mother governments to […]
Comments Off on Conditions in Africa that led to colonisation

The First Chimurenga: Shona Uprising

By |2022-09-15T12:36:19+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Nehanda(left) and Kaguvi(right) Heroes of the First Chimurenga

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Colonisation of Zimbabwe: Shona Uprisings

  • It surprised the settlers because they thought the Shona had welcomed colonialism as it protected them from raids by the Ndebele
  • The Shona were also seen as weak, disunited and having no organized society
  • […]

Comments Off on The First Chimurenga: Shona Uprising

Labour Issues in Rhodesia 1894-1969

By |2022-09-15T12:36:09+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Black railway workers during colonial times.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Zimbabwe 1894-1969: Labour Issues in Rhodesia 1894-1969

  • Labour was needed to support the colonialist economic activities such as mining, farming industrialization among others
  • Settlers wanted healthy and able-bodied labour which could be provided by Africans
  • The huge supply of readily […]
Comments Off on Labour Issues in Rhodesia 1894-1969

Mining Monopoly and its Effects in South Africa

By |2022-09-15T12:35:55+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Workers for the De Beers company

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: South Africa 1867 – 1910: Mining Monopoly and its Effects

  • The Wernher-Beit provided the capital to purchase all necessary claims
  • Its agent locally was Cecil John Rhodes who had been attracted by the adventures of mining in Africa
  • The capital […]
Comments Off on Mining Monopoly and its Effects in South Africa
Go to Top