January 2023

Sea Ports in Africa

By |2022-09-15T12:35:58+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

The port at Cape Town South Africa. Image credit businessmediamags.co.za

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Transport:Ports in Africa

Siting of ports in Africa

  • The siting of a port is determined by the physical environment.
  • Deep estuaries or deep offshore waters are necessary otherwise where the continental shelf is shallow, a lot of […]

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Air Transport in Africa

By |2022-09-15T12:35:57+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ethopian airways. Image credit financialgazette.co.zw

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Transport:Air Transport in Africa

  • Africa’s air transport is poorly organised at both the international and regional levels for the movement of passenger and freight.
  • Whilst global passenger and freight traffic have been growing annually, Africa’s situation is one where volumes are […]

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The city of Harare

By |2022-09-15T12:40:59+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

harare_night-min

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Settlements: The city of Harare

  • According to the 2012 census:
  • Harare has a population of 2 098 199 people.
  • With a male population of: 1 011 831
  • And a female population of: 1 086 368
  • It is Zimbabwe’s administrative capital and largest city.
  • It is the focal point of all roads, rail […]

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Transport Network analysis

By |2022-09-15T12:35:56+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Transport: Transport Network analysis

 

The transport network system of Uganda. 
  • A transport network is  a spatial pattern of transportation facilities in a given region
  • It shows the pattern of transportation facilities that cover a given area e.g. a country, region or continent
  • Various methods are used […]

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Population structure

By |2022-09-15T12:37:11+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Population: Population structure

  • The population structure of a country describes the population’s age, sex and the period males and females are expected to live
  • Population structure is the composition of a given population, which is broken down into categories such as age and gender.
  • This information can be shown on a population […]

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Factors influencing world trade

By |2022-09-15T12:35:41+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Trucks at the border between Zimbabwe and South Africa. Image credit BBC

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Trade:Factors influencing world trade

  • There are several factors that influence trade.
  • Some of these factors are:
  • National income

If a country’s income level (national income) increases by a higher percentage than those of other countries, […]


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Population and resources

By |2022-09-15T12:36:59+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

There is a link between population and resources. Image credit Flickr.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Population and resources:Population and resources

  • There exists a complex relationship between population, resources and the environment.
  • Population issues are central in any country’s programs that seek to eradicate poverty and diseases as well as sustain economic growth, […]

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The Southern African Development Community (SADC)

By |2022-09-15T12:35:40+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

SADC Headquarters in South Africa.

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Trade:The Southern African Development Community (SADC)

  • Regional economic grouping can take the form of free trade areas, custom unions, common markets and economic unions.
  • Free trade areas: there are no trade barriers for the member states of the trade area. Member […]

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Population and Land

By |2022-09-15T12:36:59+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Ploughing sandy soils. Image credit zimbabweelection.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Population and resources:Population and Land

  • Land is the most important natural resource base in a country.
  • This is especially true for a country like Zimbabwe whose economy is agro-based
  • Rapid population growth increases human demand on the land causing heavy damage to […]

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The benefits and problems facing SADC

By |2022-09-15T12:35:39+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Geography, Ordinary Level Notes|

Some of the SADC staff.

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Trade:The benefits and problems facing SADC

Benefits

  • The countries collectively from a large regional market.
  • Jointly, the countries have a diverse resources base. If exploited fully these would stimulate rapid economic growth within the region.
  • Bilateral trade between member states.
  • There are […]

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