January 2023

Alimentary Systems

By |2022-09-15T12:41:50+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The human digestive system. Image credit airurbano.com

The human digestive system. Image credit airurbano.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Alimentary Systems
  • Unlike plants, animals are just consumers and cannot make their own food.
  • They rely on plans as producers.
  • Most of the food eaten is made up of large insoluble molecules which […]

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Investigating the movement of water within plants

By |2022-09-15T12:41:41+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A celery plant in dye. Image credit wordpress.com

A celery plant in dye. Image credit wordpress.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Investigating the movement of water within plants

Aim: To demonstrate that moves up plants which have a transportation system.

Materials: Young plants with roots/celery plants, water, hand lenses, razor blade/scalpel, food colouring/dye.

Method

  1. Place […]

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Blood and its properties

By |2022-09-15T12:40:36+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The composition of blood.

The composition of blood.  ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Blood and its properties
  • Blood circulating in a mammal constitutes about 7.5% of its body mass.
  • An average human weighing between 68-80 kgs has about 4.7 to 5 litres of blood in their body
  • Blood can be considered as tissue […]

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Experiment: Comparing the air content of soils

By |2022-09-15T12:40:28+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Sand, Loam and Clay soil samples. Image credit ayersbasementsystems.com

Sand, Loam and Clay soil samples. Image credit ayersbasementsystems.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Comparing the air content of soils  

Materials: small tin cans, measuring cylinders, water, samples of clay, sandy and loam soils, hammer, nail

Method

  • Fill an empty tin can with […]

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Structure of atoms: protons,electrons and neutrons

By |2022-09-15T12:40:19+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The atomic structure of carbon. Image credit ucsb.edu

The atomic structure of carbon. Image credit ucsb.edu ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Structure of atoms: protons,electrons and neutrons

Protons and neutrons

  • The protons are the positive charge in the nucleus of an atom
  • The neutrons are also in the nucleus but they have […]

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Loading a beam

By |2022-09-15T12:39:51+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Loading a beam

Loading a beam ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Loading a beam
  • When a beam is loaded it will bend
  • Bending movement creates stress
  • The top of the beam is compressed and the underside is stretched
  • This is because there are compressive forces at the top and stretching/tensile forces at the underside
  • If […]

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Experiment: The reaction of magnesium with steam

By |2022-09-15T12:39:38+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Shona Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Magnesium reacts with steam

Magnesium reacts with steam ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Experiment: The reaction of metals and water

Aim: To investigate and observe the reaction of magnesium and water

Materials:  magnesium ribbon, hard glass test tube, water, sand, 2 burners, short glass tube, splint, clamp stand

Method

  1. Set up the apparatus as shown […]

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Introduction to Bases

By |2022-09-15T12:39:30+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Household goods that are bases. Image credit MediaWiki

Household goods that are bases. Image credit MediaWiki ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Introduction to Bases
  • Bases are different from acids
  • When a base dissolves in water it makes an alkaline solution
  • Metal oxides are bases
  • They dissolve in water to form alkaline solutions
  • These solutions are […]

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Steel making

By |2022-09-15T12:39:21+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Steel beams. Image credit  risleysteelservices.ca

Steel beams. Image credit risleysteelservices.ca ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Steel making
  • The iron from the oxygen lance process is poured into a ladle and
  • Small amounts of other metals are mixed with it
  • It is mixed with metals such as:
  • manganese, cobalt, chromium […]

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Summary of plating and its uses

By |2022-09-15T12:39:09+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Tin plating is used in making food cans. Image credit alsagerfoodbank.org.uk

Tin plating is used in making food cans. Image credit alsagerfoodbank.org.uk ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Summary of plating and its uses
  • The electroplating processes can be summarized as below
  • The various plating processes and their uses […]

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