July 2017

Introduction to break even analysis

By |2017-07-08T16:16:38+02:00July 8th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Introduction to break even analysis

  • It is a simple decision making aid used to discover the level of output/activity that is required before profits are made
  • It can also be used to discover the level of activity/output required to achieve a set level of profits
  • Break even analysis is […]

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Fixed costs, variable costs, direct costs and indirect cost

By |2017-07-08T09:59:30+02:00July 8th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Fixed costs, variable costs, direct costs and indirect cost

  • Cost accounting is the accounting function concerned with calculating costs
  • Cost is an amount that has to be paid or given up in order to get something
  • In business costs are expressed in monetary terms
  • In this discussion costs include:
      […]

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Uses, advantages and disadvantages of budgets

By |2017-07-06T10:37:12+02:00July 6th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis: Budgets: Uses, advantages and disadvantages of budgets

  • Facilitate coordination between departments within the organisation
  • Helps to assign and clarify responsibilities e.g. the production department must produce and the marketing department sell produced units
  • Help to translate strategic plans into actionable departmental goals
  • Improves communication
  • Help to control […]

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Business Studies: Budgets an introduction

By |2017-07-06T10:36:36+02:00July 6th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis:Budgets an introduction

  • As pointed out in another topic one of the principal functions of management is planning
  • It involves creating predetermined courses of action (i.e. plans)
  • A budget is a plan of action for achieving quantified objectives
  • Budgets are plans of action expressed in quantitative(measurable) terms
  • […]


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Business Studies: Gearing ratios

By |2017-07-05T10:41:46+02:00July 5th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis:Gearing ratios

  • Gearing refers to the extent to which a business’s assets are financed using debt capital versus equity capital
  • Remember the balance sheet equation:
  • Assets = Capital (Equity) + Liabilities (Debt)
  • What this means is that all assets are purchased using either equity or debt finance
  • Equity […]

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Business Studies: Liquidity ratios

By |2018-01-22T08:52:57+02:00July 5th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis:Liquidity ratios

  • Liquidity is a measure of how well a business can meet its short term obligations as and when they fall due
  • It is usually expressed in terms of how well the entity in question can convert its assets into cash
  • Short term obligations include amounts owed […]

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Business Studies: Working Capital

By |2017-07-05T09:32:08+02:00July 1st, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Working Capital

  • Refers to the capital of the business that is used for the day to day running of the business
  • Put simply it is the cash available for day-to-day operations of an organization
  • Strictly speaking though working capital is more than just cash
  • It includes all the assets […]

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Business Studies: Profitability Ratios

By |2017-07-01T08:54:24+02:00July 1st, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis:Profitability Ratios

  • These measures indicate how well a business is performing in terms of its ability to generate profit
  • The ratios relate profits to sales and assets
  • There are three commonly used ratios:
  • Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
  • Profit Margin and
  • Profit Markup

Return on Capital Employed

  • Is normally […]

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June 2017

Business Studies: Ratio Analysis: Introduction

By |2018-08-15T08:59:16+02:00June 30th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis: Introduction

  • Businesses record financial transactions as part of the finance and accounting function
  • This financial information is presented in the form of financial statements also known as final accounts at the end of each year/trading period
  • This information is used by various stakeholders of the business to make […]

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Business Studies: Financial statements

By |2018-07-23T11:34:22+02:00June 30th, 2017|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes, Principles of Accounts Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Financial statements/ Final Accounts

  • The accounting function exists mainly to record, analyse and present financial information
  • Presentation of financial information involves the preparation of what are known as final accounts
  • They are called final accounts because they are the last accounts to be prepared
  • They are also made at […]

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