January 2023

Introduction to Debentures

By |2022-09-15T12:40:51+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes, Principles of Accounts Notes|

A debenture certificate. Image credit scripophily.net

A debenture certificate. Image credit scripophily.net ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Introduction to Debentures
  • These are loan stocks that are issued to the company.
  • A debenture is simply a document or certificates that acknowledges said loan.
  • Debentures are creditors to the […]

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External sources of finance

By |2022-09-15T12:39:43+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

There are several external sources of finance for a business. Image credit rampages.us

There are several external sources of finance for a business. Image credit rampages.us ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: External sources of finance
  • This is when the funds come from outside the business itself
  • External sources of finance include […]

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Fringe Benefits

By |2022-09-15T12:37:37+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Company houses can be given as fringe benefits. Image credit dualcareerpartner.com

Company houses can be given as fringe benefits. Image credit dualcareerpartner.com ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Fringe Benefits
  • are benefits provided by an employer to an employee
  • This form of  compensation is given in addition to direct wages or […]

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Market based organisational structure

By |2022-09-15T12:37:28+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

An example of a market based structure

An example of a market based structure

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Market based organisational structure

  • This is where the organisation’s divisions, operations, duties and positions are based markets, market segments, industry or customer types
  • For example a large clothing store with different […]

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Communication in business: Open meeting

By |2022-09-15T12:37:21+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Business Meeting. Image credit atlantablackstar.com

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Communication: Open meeting

  • Is a formal or informal gathering of individuals that deliberately come together to deliberate on certain issues of importance to the organisation and its members
  • Formal meetings are planned,  officially recognised by the organisation and have a agenda […]

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Types of Industrial Action

By |2022-09-15T12:34:08+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Managing Human Resources: Trade Unions: Types of Industrial Action

  • If and when there is a failure in negotiations and conflict resolution employees may resort to industrial action
  • Industrial action refers to steps that employees can take to force management to accept their demands
  • There are various types of industrial action:
  • Withdrawal of cooperation
  • […]


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The Marketing Department

By |2022-09-15T12:34:00+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Marketing:The Marketing Department

  • Is responsible for executing and implementing the organisation’s marketing functions
  • It carries out functions such as:
    1. Marketing research:
      1. Identifying opportunities that lie in the market that the business might exploit
      2. Carrying out desk and field research
      3. Analyzing data gathered from marketing research and making decisions
    2. New product development in […]

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Marketing: Sales Promotion

By |2022-09-15T12:33:55+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Marketing: Sales Promotion

  • Refers to all forms of promotion other than  advertising or personal selling
  • Stimulation of sales achieved through contests,
  • demonstrations,
  • discounts,
  • exhibitions or trade shows,
  • games,
  • giveaways,
  • point-of-sale displays and merchandising,
  • special offers,
  • trial periods
  • and similar activities.
  • Sales promotions are normally employed in a supportive role together with other forms […]

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Flow Production/Line Production

By |2022-09-15T12:33:49+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Production: Flow Production/Line Production

  • This is also known as assembly line or continuous production
  • It is a method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption to produce products
  • It involves repetitive manufacturing processes in which each product passes through the same sequence of operations,
  • and the machines and other equipment are […]

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Business Studies: Budgets an introduction

By |2022-09-15T12:33:43+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Business Studies Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Business Finance and Accounting: Ratio Analysis:Budgets an introduction

  • As pointed out in another topic one of the principal functions of management is planning
  • It involves creating predetermined courses of action (i.e. plans)
  • A budget is a plan of action for achieving quantified objectives
  • Budgets are plans of action expressed in quantitative(measurable) terms
  • […]


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