O Level Geography: The Tropical Continental Climate and its biomes
- The Tropical Continental Climate is a climate type found in the interiors of large landmasses within the tropics, characterized by high temperatures and distinct dry and wet seasons.
- This climate type is influenced by the large-scale air circulation patterns, such as the Hadley Cell, that occur in the tropics.
Biomes found in the Tropical Continental Climate:
- Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands (also known as the Tropical Savanna or Tropical Grassland biome)
- These biomes are characterized by grasses and scattered trees, and are found in areas with a distinct dry season followed by a rainy season.
- They are home to a diverse array of herbivores, such as zebras and giraffes, and large predators, such as lions and cheetahs.
- Examples of this biome include the African Savanna, the Cerrado of South America, and the savannas of Australia.
- Deserts and Xeric Shrublands (also known as the Desert biome)
- These biomes are characterized by extremely low precipitation, high temperatures, and often sparse vegetation adapted to arid conditions.
- They can be found in areas with a wide range of temperatures, from hot deserts to cold deserts.
- Some of the unique adaptations found in desert plants and animals include storing water in tissues, having extensive root systems to search for water, and being active during the cooler night hours.
- Examples of this biome include the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Mojave Desert in North America, and the Australian Outback.
- Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests (also known as the Tropical Rainforest biome)
- These biomes are characterized by high levels of rainfall throughout the year and high biodiversity of plant and animal species.
- They are home to many unique and iconic animals, such as monkeys, sloths, and toucans, as well as a wide variety of plant species.
- The dense canopy of trees in these forests creates a unique and important ecosystem, but also makes it challenging for humans to live and work in these areas.
- Examples of this biome include the Amazon Rainforest in South America, the Congo Rainforest in Africa, and the forests of Southeast Asia.
- Montane Grasslands and Shrublands (also known as the Highland Grassland or Montane biome)
- These biomes are found at high elevations in the tropics, and are characterized by cooler temperatures and high levels of rainfall.
- They often have distinct vegetation zones, with lower elevations covered in forests and higher elevations characterized by grasslands and shrublands.
- They are home to many unique and endemic species, such as the mountain gorilla in Africa and the spectacled bear in South America.
- Examples of this biome include the Andean Paramo in South America, the Ethiopian Highlands in Africa, and the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.
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