Mine workers of different races at Joburg

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: South Africa 1867 – 1910: Social Effects

  • The urban population grew in the 1870s
  • This was because many local population migrated to mining towns to search for employment
  • Foreigners also emigrated to South African mining towns in search of employment
  • Kimberly, Johannesburg and Transvaal soon grew to be big cities as more people continued to come and settle there
  • Social problems such as lack of decent housing, prostitution, poverty and moral decay began to rise
  • Many whites who failed to make it in the mining towns created a new social group called the poor white community
  • Africans were mistreated abused in farms and mines
  • They were labelled as the black gold because they were cheap labour yet they performed much of the work
  • The formation of trade unions led to mass nationalism and the formation of the ANC in 1912
  • Afrikaner Nationalism also rose during this period
  • Settlements in mining areas were built
  • The African culture was destroyed as many families separated due to the search of greener pastures
  • Social services were put in place such as education and health facilities

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