### ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Introduction to population growth, change and structure

• There is a strong inter-relationship between birth rate, death rate, population growth, change and structure.
• Birth rate is the number of live births per 1 000 of the population in one year.
• $\text{Crude Birth Rate}=\dfrac{Number\quad of \quad Live \quad Births \quad in \quad Year}{Total\quad Population \quad in \quad a \quad Country} \text{x} \dfrac{1000}{1}$
• The birth rate is affected by the fertility rate
• Fertility rate is the number of children born to a woman of the child bearing age (15-49) expressed as a percentage
• $Fertility=\dfrac{\text{Number of Births}}{\text{Number of Women( 15-49 )}} \text{x}\dfrac{100}{1}$
• Crude death rate (CDR) is the number of deaths per 1 000 people per year.
• $\dfrac{\text{Number of Deaths in the Year}}{\text{Total Population in a Country}} \text{x} \dfrac{1000}{1}$
• Life expectancy is the average period which a person in a particular environment is expected to live.
• The accuracy of the above rates can be improved if average population size is used instead
• $\text{Average Population} =\dfrac{Population_E + Population_A}{2}$
• Where:
• $Population_A$ is the Population at the beginning of the year and
• $Population_E$ is the Population at the end of the year

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page

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