ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Industrial studies: Industrial Relocation
- This is a situation where an industry which had been established in one area has to shift and locate in a new different area.
- This may even involve trans-border location.
- The industry has to stop functioning and close down all operations in its original location and move elsewhere.
- Causes of relocation are numerous but the main ones include:
- Government policy.
- Environmental pressures on pollution in old established industrial areas.
- Local authority by-laws.
- Exhaustion of raw materials at original location and their discovery elsewhere and use of imported raw materials.
- Changes in market demand and transport.
- Changes in production technology.
- The UK iron and steel industry has changed location from in-land, small-scale, unintegrated coal or iron-ore field based locations of the 1880s to present day coastal, modern, integrated, import-oriented locations of South Wales and North East England because of these reasons.
- Industrial relocation has very negative effects to the source regions from which industries are moving away from. These include the following:
- Unemployment increases as industries move out leaving behind the labour force.
- There is general out-migration of the economically active population as jobs are no longer available.
- As a result of these two effects, living standards will fall.
- Increase in crime and prostitution is witnessed as people struggle for survival.
- Abandonment sets in as buildings crack and collapse; paint peels off; sewage pipes burst, water supply becomes erratic; as well as electricity provision and roads develop unattended potholes: there is general neglect of housing and infrastructure leading to the development of ghost towns and depressed regions.
- Economic performance declines as shops close down and migrate out.
- While sources regions of the industries suffer, all too often, the destination areas become the beneficiaries which experience positive physical and economic effects which include:
- Exploitation of resources which are lying idle.
- Employment creation for the local population.
- Development of infrastructural services such as roads, rails, power, telecommunications, health, education and recreation, insurance and banking.
- General raising of living standards.
To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page
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